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A Florida jury in a federal civil trial today awarded $ 54.6 million to three Salvadorans who proved they were brutally tortured by Salvadoran security forces between 1979-83.

Juan Romagoza, Neriz Gonzalez and Carlos Mauricio sued two Salvadoran generals who retired to south Florida in 1989. The suit is based on two federal laws that allow torture victims to seek redress in U.S. courts, even if the offenses occurred elsewhere.

Florida Jury Finds Salvadoran Generals Liable for Torture, Awards $54.6 Million to Victims
The Center for Justice & Accountability (CJA), July 23, 2002

Related Material

India Shamefully Joins the United States in the Sidelines of International Justice
Women's Caucus for Gender Justice, July 10, 2002

International Justice for Women: The ICC Marks a New Era
Human Rights Watch Backgrounder, July 1, 2002

UK report censures Gujarat rulers
BBC Online, 25 April, 2002

Hindus called to account over killing of Britons
Luke Harding in New Delhi, Guardian, April 30, 2002

Questions and Answers about the ICC
Human Rights Watch, May 2002

What CJA Needs To File A Civil Lawsuit, Against Perpetrators of Human Rights Violations in The United States
The Center for Justice & Accountability

Rwanda: Belgian Genocide Trial
New Era in International Justice
Human Rights Watch Press Release, April 21, 2001

Bosnia: Landmark Verdicts for Rape, Torture, and Sexual Enslavement
Human Rights Watch Press Release, February 22, 2001

Serb Gang-Rapes in Kosovo Exposed
Human Rights Watch Press Release, March 2000

Kosovo: Rape As A Weapon of "Ethnic Cleansing"
Human Rights Watch Report, March 2000

Rights Group Supports Belgium's Universal Jurisdiction Law
Human Rights Watch Press Release, November 20, 2000

Kosovo Backgrounder: Sexual Violence As International Crime
Human Rights Watch Backgrounder, May 10, 1999

Shattered Lives
Sexual Violence during the Rwandan Genocide and its Aftermath
Human Rights Watch Report, September 1996

International Justice
  • "Threatened Existence: A Feminist Analysis of the Genocide in Gujarat"
    The International Initiative for Justice (December 10, 2003)
    Coming as it does almost 18 months since the pogrom, this report can operate as a reflection on the inadequacy of existing processes, both legal and otherwise, to provide justice and redress to victims, and as an allusion to new forms of activism around Gujarat that are relevant to broader struggles for democracy and equality.

    The Gujarat experience once more highlights the need to look at sexual violence as a significant engine of genocide. We need to understand the genocidal nature of the Hindutva project so as to emphasize the critical responsibility of intervention that lies with both the civil society and the State.

  • Immunity for the citizen
    The Hindu, Editorial, December 30, 2002
    Since India was not a signatory to the Rome Statute that established the Court and since the U.S. had renounced its obligations to the Statute, both countries were already free from any compulsion to extradite those wanted by the Court to a territory where its jurisdiction applies. Under its founding charter the Court, in most instances, will have jurisdiction only in respect of crimes committed within the territory of the countries that have ratified the Statute or by citizens of the ratifying countries. But several of the countries that have ratified the Statute have endured strife of an order that necessitated international peacekeeping efforts.

  • India, U.S. not to surrender nationals to any tribunal
    By Amit Baruah, The Hindu, December 27, 2002
    NEW DELHI Dec. 26. India and the United States today signed an agreement whereby neither country will surrender persons of the other country to any international tribunal without the other country's express consent.

    While there was no reference to the International Criminal Court, the spokesman said that the context in which the accord was signed was the ICC.

    (for additional information: HRW: Letter urging continued resistance to U.S. impunity agreements , Human Rights Watch letter, October 21, 2002

  • The International Initiative for Justice in Gujarat
    An Interim Report, December 2002

    Forum seeks action against Sangh outfits
    Times News Network, December 19, 2002
    NEW DELHI: The International Initiative for Justice in Gujarat, a body consisting of several Indian women's groups and activists from abroad, have demanded that the state government restore to the Muslims their rights to life, security and survival as guaranteed by the Constitution.

    The International Initiative for Justice in Gujarat - An Interim Report is available here.

  • Straw demands inquiry into killings of Britons in Gujarat
    By P. Jayaram, Indo -Asian News Service, May 29, 2002
    New Delhi, May 29 (IANS) British Foreign Secretary Jack Straw Wednesday demanded a "through investigation" into the killing of two British nationals during the sectarian violence in Gujarat and compensation for their relatives.

  • UK Muslim group petitions UNHRC on Gujarat
    Press Trust of India, May 29, 2002
    London, May 28: London-based Indian Muslim Federation (IMF) has taken the question of recent communal riots in Gujarat to the UN Human Rights Commission demanding the appointment of a special rapporteur and a special tribunal to investigate and fix responsibility.

  • Commonwealth is not right forum to deal with Gujarat violence: UK
    PTI London, May 28, The Hindustan Times
    Britain has made it categorically clear that Commonwealth is not the right forum to deal with the recent violent incidents in Gujarat.

    "The Government of India has strongly condemned the violence in Gujarat and has given assurances, which we welcome, that they will take action to bring to justice the perpetrators of the attacks.

  • British MPs Set to Back Genocide Case Against Modi
    From Shrabani Basu, London, May 22, 2002

    Several British MPs have voiced their concern at the events in Gujarat, which have led to the deaths of three British Muslims, and are prepared to back a long-drawn Lockerbie-style case in the European courts against the Narendra Modi government.

    The plan to sue Narendra Modi for genocide by the families of the British victims announced last month has picked up momentum with the virtual finalisation of Britain’s top QC (Queen’s Counsel) to fight the case in the International Court of Justice and the Belgian courts.
    Read More - Telegraph India

  • The Gujarat carnage & International Criminal Court
    Saumya Uma
    The author is a human rights advocate and the Coordinator of "ICC-India"

    The International Criminal Court is a safety net to tackle situations where perpetrators escape the clutches of domestic law.

    THE CARNAGE in Gujarat conveys a message of triumph of violence and brutality over law, impunity over accountability, and high-handedness over justice. As in the case of perpetrators of the communal attacks in Mumbai, for the persons who have inflicted violence against the religious minorities in Gujarat, impunity seems probable and accountability seems illusive. It is precisely to end impunity that a judicial mechanism has been created and has gained overwhelming support at the international level — the International Criminal Court (ICC).  Read More (The Hindu, May 14, 2002)